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Holocaust

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Adolf Hitler
Oskcar Schindler
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Adolf Hitler

hitler.jpg

-Born on the evening of april 20,1889.

-his grandfather was Jewish.

-became cancellor of Germany on January 30, 1933.

Timeline of Adolf's Life

1889

Adolf Hitler is born on 20th April, the son of Alois and Klara, in Braunau-am-Inn, Linz, Austria.

1905

Adolf Hitler leaves school without graduating. His favourite subjects were History and German literature.

1908

Hitler moved from his hometown of Linz to Vienna. He fails to win a place at the art academy and begins to sleep rough, even though he is getting a student’s allowance.

1913

Hitler moves from Vienna to escape military service in the Austrian army and goes to live in Munich, the capital of Bavaria in Germany.

1914

Hitler celebrates the beginning of the Great War as Germany declares war on Russia and Serbia.

1916

Corporal Adolf Hitler is injured in the thigh during the Battle of the Somme. He is sent to Berlin’s military hospital.

1918

Hitler, now a winner of the Iron Cross (First Class) for his bravery in the Ludendorff Spring Offensive, is blinded by gas and sent to hospital in Munich.

1918

Faced with revolution at home, Kaiser Wilhelm, the German Emperor, abdicated (resigned) and handed over power to a new government made of Social-Democrats. The war was over. The German communists, or Spartacists attempted to have a revolution like in Russia.

1918

Hitler hears of Germany’s surrender in November and swears to avenge this ‘stabbing in the back’.

1919

The Versailles Treaty was signed – making Germany pay money (reparations) to the winning countries of the war. Germany’s armed forces were reduced, her empire was broken up and Germans were made to accept ‘War Guilt’. Many nationalists, such as Hitler, were furious. They called the German government the ‘November Criminals’.

1920

Hitler, discharged from the army, and now working as a government agent, is sent to spy on the small German Workers’ Party (DAP) in Munich.

1920

The ‘Kapp Putsch’ failed. This was an attempt by nationalist ex-soldiers called the Freikorps. The workers refused to help the Freikorps in their rebellion. Later the Freikorps help the government to crush a workers’ strike, killing hundreds.

1921

Hitler takes control of the German Workers’ Party and renames it the National Socialist German Worker’s Party (NSDAP). He is the 55th member of this small group.

1922

Benito Mussolini, the fascist, takes power in Italy. Hitler is impressed by his black-shirted supporters, their raised-arm salutes, and their hatred of Communists.

1923

French and Belgian troops marched into the Ruhr industrial region after Germany stopped paying her war debts. German workers went on strike.

Hyperinflation gripped the economy as money lost its value and people could not keep up with rising prices.

New chancellor Gustav Stresemann ended the resistance in the Ruhr and began the reparations payments again.

1923

Hitler, Roehm, Goering and the NSDAP attempt to overthrow the state government in Munich. The rebellion, based from the Burgerbraukellar (Borough Beer Hall). The army fail to support the Nazis. Over a dozen Nazis are killed, the police overpower the revolt and Hitler is arrested.

Hitler is tried for treason and uses the trial to put forward his views. He is jailed in Landsberg Prison. The Nazi Party and the SA are banned.

1924

Hitler, with help from his secretary, Rudolf Hess, finishes his book, Mein Kampf (My Struggle) which outlines his beliefs and aims. Hitler is released from Landsberg Prison having served just 13 months for treason. 

1924

Stresemann signed the Dawes Plan – borrowing money from the USA to pay off the war reparations. Unemployment fell and German businesses began to recover. The ‘Golden Years’ were beginning.

1925

The SS (Schutzstaffel), Hitler’s personal bodyguard army is formed. Heinrich Himmler is appointed leader. They wear leftover black ski-hats to distinguish them from the Brownshirts to begin with, and later wear all-black uniforms.

1926

The Hitler Youth (Hitler Jugend) is formed as a branch of the SA.

1927

The first Nuremburg rally for the Nazi Party attracts 30,000 SA men. It is claimed that Nazi Party membership is 70,000.

1928

The Nazis win 12 seats in the Reichstag. Hermann Goering and Josef Goebbels are amongst the new deputies. Goebbels takes over the popaganda branch of the Party from

1929

The second Nuremburg rally attracts 60,000 SA men and 200,000 Nazi supporters. Hitler demands that the Versailles Treaty is torn up. Within a month, the stock markets collapse in America – the Wall Street Crash.

1932

Hindenburg defeats Hitler in the presidential elections by 49.6 percent to 30.1 percent. The SA, now with over 400,000 members, is banned again. A month later, a repeated election sees Hitler lose (53-37) but increase his vote.

1932

The two Reichstag elections of this year see the Nazis lose some of their vote but stay as the biggest single party. Kurt von Schleicher is named Chancellor of Germany, taking over from Franz von Papen, the Catholic Centre Party leader who un-banned the SA.

1933

Schleicher resigns due to his unpopularity in the Reichstag. Von Papen agrees to form a mainly-Conservative cabinet with Hitler as Chancellor. He thinks he and the others can control the Nazis.

1933

Reichstag Fire: Germany’s parliament building is burnt down. Goering claims he has proof that the Communists are responsible.  Thousands of anti-Fascists such as Communists, Socialists and Liberals are arrested. Industrialists and big businesses pledge money to the Nazis.

1933

The last Reichstag elections see the Nazis increase their vote to 44 percent. The Communists are banned and the Reichstag passes the Enabling Law – which allows Hitler to make laws without asking the Reichstag.

1934

The Night of the Long Knives – following a huge rise in SA membership to over a million – the SS swoop on the homes of leading SA members and murder them Roehm, the leader of the SA and Nazi since the beginning, is shot in the throat. Kurt von Schleicher, former Chancellor is also killed.

1934

President Hindenburg, the last remaining obstacle to complete power for Hitler, dies. Hitler now joins the post of President to Chancellor and becomes Fuehrer (Supreme Leader). The army swears an oath of loyalty to Hitler. Hitler now has total control of Germany.

1933

The first concentration camp is opened in Dachau, near Munich, to jail the Communist Party members. The SS is in charge of the camps.

1933

Trades Unions are banned and replaced by the German Labour Front or DAF (Deutsche Arbeitsfront)

Jews were banned from jobs in the government – the ‘Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service’

1935

The ‘Reich Labour Law’  made all young men between 18 and 25 do six months work service (Arbietdienst). This reduced the unemployment figures.

1935

‘The Law for the Protection of German Blood and Honour’ banned marriages between Aryans and Jews. Jews and non-Jews were also banned from having sexual relations. The citizenship rights of Jews was removed by the ‘Reich Citizenship Law’. These laws became known as the Nuremburg Laws.

1936

The ‘Hitler Youth Law’ makes the Hitler Youth as important as home or school.

1936

Berlin hosts the Olympic Games. Hitler wanted the games to be used as a propaganda spectacle for the Nazis. Leni Riefenstahl made a famous film, ‘The Triumph of the Will’ about the event. It was spoiled for Hitler by the black American runner Jesse Owens winning four gold medals.

1938

Following the assassination of a German Embassy official in Paris, France by Herschel Grynszpan, a young Polish Jew, thousands of Jewish shops, homes and synagogues were attacked. Over 100 Jews were killed and 20,000 arrested in the Night of Broken Glass or Crystal Night (Kristallnacht). Jews were ordered to pay one billion Reichsmarks to clear up the damage.

1939

The ‘Second Hitler Youth Law’ makes membership of the Hitler Youth compulsory, and all young people have to swear an oath to Adolf Hitler.

1939

Germany invaded Poland and Britain and France declared war on Germany. The second world war in Europe had begun.

1940

The Nazis began to round up Polish Jews to be put in ‘ghettoes’ – walled areas of cities. Many died of starvation.

 

1941

Operation Barbarossa – the German invasion of the USSR begins. A Blitzkrieg attack takes hundreds of thousands of Red Army prisoners. Einsatzgruppen units move in to execute Communists and Jews.

1942

The Wannsee Conference, attended by the senior Nazi leaders, decided on a final and permanent solution to the ‘Jewish Problem’. The first extermination camp was set up at Belzec in Poland.

1943

The Germans surrendered at Stalingrad in the USSR. This is the turning point in the war, and from now on Germany would fight a defensive war as Stalin’s Soviet Red Army advance towards the heart of the Reich.

1944

The second front in the West is finally begun as hundreds of thousands of US, British, Free French troops land in Normandy on the day known as ‘D-Day’.

1944

The ‘July Plot’ fails and the bomb laid by Colonel Claus von Stauffenberg fails to kill Adolf Hitler. Nearly 6,000 suspected plotters including 19 generals and 2 ambassadors were executed by beheading or hanging slowly with wire.

1945

Hitler married his girlfriend, Eva Braun in the bunker underneath Berlin while Soviet troops were conquering the city.

The next day, after she took poison, Hitler put a pistol to his head and blew his brains out. His body was taken out and burned. Within a week Germany surrendered, and the ‘Thousand Year Reich’ ended after 12 years.